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Consciousness, Physics, and the Holographic Paradigm

Essays by Alan T. Williams

Part I:  Sneaking Up On Einstein

Astrophysics in the first decade of the 21st century
is in the midst of a revolution that leads beyond the stars.
- A. T. Williams


Section 1 Section 2 Section 3

Chapter 6

Section 3:  The Diamagnetic Moon

Briefly reviewing the basics before beginning the new subject of the diamagnetic Moon, the recently discovered universal principle of energy states that fundamental, irreducible, nonmaterial primordial energy per se has an objective, independent physical existence and exists in the absence of matter, but matter is entirely dependent upon energy and cannot exist in the absence of energy. This implies that our finite, holonomic material universe as well as our finite, holonomic space-time continuum are immersed in, and pervaded by the omnipresent, all-encompassing, nonmaterial primordial energy domain.

Thus, in the new 21st century physics:

  1. Energetic nonmaterial, conditionally relative activity not only exists within the bounds of our finite, local material universe and our finite, local space-time continuum, it also exists in the transcendent, irreducible, nonmaterial primordial energy domain.
  2. Energetic nonmaterial, nonmechanical, conditionally relative activity within our finite, local material universe and our finite, local space-time continuum is mediated by the omnipresent, fundamental, irreducible primordial energy domain.
  3. Our finite, local material universe and the finite, local space-time continuum in our compound, open (nonconservative) material system are not necessarily coextensive in scope or duration.
  4. Energetic nonmaterial, conditionally relative processes not only exist within the bound of each material object, they also exist between the disparate material objects that occupy the intangible, nonmaterial regions called space.
  5. Each discrete, conditionally relative material object is comprised of, immersed in, and pervaded by fundamental, irreducible, nonmaterial (subquantum, prequantum) primordial energy.
  6. Each conditionally relative elementary particle in each atom and each ion of the particulate matter we see, hear, touch, taste, and smell is a discrete, organized aggregation of fundamental, irreducible, nonmaterial (subquantum, prequantum) primordial energy.

The natural satellite of Earth:

The Moon, the natural satellite of Earth, has been a mathematical and astronomical enigma since the time of Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543). Some of the underlying reasons – by no means exhaustive – are:

Full Moon
  • The Moon has no measurable global magnetic field.
  • The same side of the Moon always faces the Earth.
  • The Moon has a noticeable libration (a slow oscillation or wobble) in longitude and latitude which, over time, allows somewhat more than half of the lunar surface that faces Earth to be viewed. Nonetheless, the far side of the Moon can be viewed only from outer space.
  • The Moon is slowly, measurably, receding from the Earth.

Three converging threads may help clarify the enigmatic, near-space orbital relationship between the Earth and the Moon:

  1. The results of Michael Faraday's diamagnetic experiments conducted more than 150 years ago.
  2. The nonmaterial (subquantum) magnetic energy generated by the subatomic electron current loop.
  3. The fundamental, irreducible, nonmaterial primordial energy domain within which particulate matter is created, contained, and maintained.

The novel insight described in this essay is based on the diamagnetic phenomena discovered by Faraday and others as the phenomena relate to certain puzzling anomalies of the Earth-Moon system and various other large diamagnetic objects found in the regions called space.

The Moon is much smaller than the Earth, thus the force of gravity on the surface of the Moon is approximately six times weaker than the force of gravity on the surface of the Earth. Curiously, little consideration has been given to the absence of a measurable global magnetic field around the Moon despite the puzzling historical inconsistencies between the lunar orbit and classical physics.

The global magnetic field of large material objects in space such as the Earth or the Moon, for example, is called a "magnetosphere." Nonetheless, some large material objects in space have a weak, negligible, or absent magnetosphere. The Earth has a strong global magnetosphere. The fact that the Moon has no global magnetosphere is a significant, poorly understood anomaly.

Various models to describe how global magnetospheres may be created and sustained have been put forward since the 19th century. Traditional explanations are modeled on the simple electromagnetic generator (i.e., dynamo) action discovered by Faraday in 1831. 20th century physics discovered that the fundamental, nonmaterial energy of magnetism generated by subatomic electron current loops on the atomic and molecular scale also makes a significant contribution to the presence or absence of a viable global magnetosphere.

The subatomic electron current loop contribution to a global magnetosphere is proportional to the number of dipolar atomic and molecular magnetic moments aligned with the comprehensive internal magnetic field of every large or small material object from the atomic to the macroscopic scale.

On November 4, 1845, Faraday discovered – and later proved by a variety of experiments – that repulsion and equatorial alignment of material objects in an external magnetic field is characteristic of diamagnetism. His experimental investigation of diamagnetism also discovered that virtually every material object is diamagnetic to one degree or another. That is to say, in a sufficiently strong magnetic field virtually every ponderable (i.e., organized, structured) material object behaves diamagnetically.

More recent investigations have determined that the diamagnetic activity of a specific object is proportional to the number of atomic and molecular dipolar magnetic moments that generate internal magnetic fields which oppose the external magnetic field within which the diamagnetic object is immersed. 6

Significantly, only the interaction of the comprehensive internal and the incident external magnetic fields is relevant. Thus the physical size of the object is irrelevant. Furthermore, as long as the diamagnetic object is immersed in a sufficiently strong magnetic field, the magnetosphere of the diamagnetic object under consideration will essentially be undetectable and the object often appears to have no measurable magnetic field of its own.

The phases of the Moon:

The phases of the diamagnetic Moon, illuminated by the Sun and viewed from Earth, as it constantly presents the same side or face toward the Earth. In the diagram below the Sun is on the left. As the Earth orbits anticlockwise (i.e., counterclockwise) around the Sun, the Moon orbits anticlockwise around the Earth, thus the inhabitants of Earth view the shining face of the full Moon when it is farthest from the Sun:

L. rear | Dark
-------------- (last quarter)
L. face | Dark
(New Moon) UpArrow
R. rear | Dark L. face | Dark
SUN -------------- rtArrow EARTH ltArrow MOON --------------
L. rear | Dark R. face | Dark
DnArrow (Full Moon)
R. face | Dark
(first quarter) --------------
R. rear | Dark

It is extremely interesting to note the diamagnetic characteristics of the Moon and other astronomical objects in the regions called space. Indeed, acknowledging the diamagnetic properties of the enigmatic Moon eliminates many ad hoc hypotheses concerning the anomalies observed in the Earth-Moon system. For example:

  1. The Moon appears to maintain a characteristic, magnetically neutral (i.e., diamagnetic) position in the least dense region between the North and South magnetic poles of the Earth's asymmetric magnetic field.
    • The central axis of the diamagnetic Moon is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field of the Earth.
    • Only one side or face of the diamagnetic Moon is ever presented for observation from the Earth.
  2. Counterintuitively, the essentially motionless diamagnetic Moon has no spin and does not rotate around its own vertical axis.
    1. The traditional view asserts that the Moon must rotate (spin) horizontally around its vertical axis simply because the Moon does circumnavigate the Earth.
      1. As illustrated in diagram above, the Moon only appears to rotate by exhibiting various phases of illumination by the Sun as it circumnavigates the Earth.
      2. The various phases of illumination by the Sun are not sufficient to prove the axial rotation of the Moon.
    2. The presence or absence of axial rotation can be definitively determined in at least two ways.
      1. By direct polar observation from a fixed vantage point in space.
      2. By placing a Foucault pendulum at the North or South pole, or at some convenient place between an axial pole and the equator of the Moon. If a rotating frame of reference (Coriolis effect) is present, the Foucault pendulum will precess 360 degrees over some precise period of time. If the Coriolis effect is absent, the Foucault pendulum will not precess.
    3. On the diamagnetic view the Moon is appropriately seen to circumnavigate the Earth much as a ship may circumnavigate (orbit) an island in the ocean, or an aircraft may circumnavigate (orbit) a landing field.
      1. If a ship circumnavigates an island anticlockwise, then the port (left) side of the ship will face the island from the beginning to the end of the circumnavigation.
      2. If an aircraft circumnavigates a landing field or an airport anticlockwise, then the port (left) wing will point to the airport from the beginning to the end of the circumnavigation.
        • Neither the ship nor the airplane will rotate (spin) horizontally around its own vertical axis during the circumnavigation.
  3. The vertical axis of the diamagnetic Moon nutates a small amount in relation to the orbital plane due to the effects of libration.
    • Lunar libration is driven by Earth and solar system magnetic and gravitational anomalies the diamagnetic Moon encounters on its orbital path.
  4. The magnetic interaction of the Earth-Moon system produces a strong magnetic repulsion of the diamagnetic Moon.
    • The strong magnetic repulsion of the diamagnetic Moon significantly opposes gravitational attraction in the Earth-Moon system.
  5. The distance between the diamagnetic Moon and Earth is measurably increasing.
    • The mutual attraction of gravitational forces in the Earth-Moon system are inexplicably being overcome to some presently undetermined degree by the strong magnetic repulsion of the diamagnetic Moon.
  6. A persistent nonzero increase in the distance between Earth and the diamagnetic Moon implies not only that the Earth-Moon system is undergoing a process of change, but also that the retention of the Moon as the natural satellite of Earth may be weakening due to poorly understood natural or artificial reasons.

Other large diamagnetic objects in space:


If virtually every material object behaves diamagnetically when immersed in a sufficiently strong magnetic field as Faraday discovered, then diamagnetic objects of various sizes and shapes are more common in our solar system and various other regions of the cosmos than one might suspect.

That is indeed the case. On December 14, 1962, for example, Mariner 2 flew past Venus at a distance of 34,773 kilometers (21,607 miles). Some of the intitial discoveries are:

  • Venus has no measurable global magnetic field (i.e., no magnetosphere).
  • Venus has a slow, clockwise (retrograde) rotation.
    • The Earth rotates in a counterclockwise direction when viewed from above the north pole. Venus slowly rotates in the opposite (retrograde) direction.
    • Venus takes 243 Earth days to complete a single clockwise rotation when viewed from above the north pole.

Several additional Mariner space probes, the Pioneer-Venus probe, the Magellan Venus probe, and the Russian Venera landers confirmed and extended the Mariner 2 findings:

  • Venus is somewhat smaller but similar in size and mass to Earth.
    • Venus is nearly a perfect sphere measuring about 95 percent of the Earth's diameter at the Equator.
    • The mass of Venus is about 20 percent less than the mass of Earth.

On February 12, 2001, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker space probe made a soft landing on asteroid 433 Eros and confirmed that 433 Eros has no detectable magnetic field.

The diamagnetic characteristics of Venus and 433 Eros confirm that, in addition to the Earth's Moon, large diamagnetic material objects of various sizes and shapes exist throughout intrastellar and interstellar space.

Will Earth retain its natural satellite?

This valid scientific question cannot be answered at the present time. Nonetheless, a few critical questions do come to mind:

  1. Other than the diamagnetic properties of the Moon, what is the fundamental cause – or causes – of the persistent nonzero increase in the distance between the Earth and the diamagnetic Moon?
  2. At what point will the unilateral magnetic necessity of diamagnetic repulsion totally overcome the mutual gravitational attraction of the Earth-Moon system, thereby causing the eventual release of the diamagnetic Moon from Earth orbit?
  3. Will the release of the diamagnetic Moon from Earth orbit have other catastrophic effects within our local solar system?
  4. What effect will the catastrophic loss of the diamagnetic Moon have on the continued viability of Earth's biosphere?

These and other questions may require investigation for decades, or perhaps centuries, before definitive answers are forthcoming.

Continued in Chapter 7, Section 1:  Hologram Theory (under construction)


Reference Notes (Click on the Note number to return to the text):

6  Faraday, Michael. Experimental Researches in Electricity [1855], vol. 3, Twentieth and Twenty-First Series, pp. 27-82; ibid., On the Magnetic Affection of Light, and on the Distinction between the Ferromagnetic and Diamagnetic Conditions of Matter, pp. 453-466. Green Lion Press, Santa Fe, NM, 2000. 3 volume Set, ISBN 1-888009-15-2
(cf. Williams, L. Pearce. Michael Faraday: A Biography, Simon and Schuster, New York NY, 1971; Fisher, Howard J. Faraday's Experimental Researches in Electricity, Green Lion Press, Santa FE, NM, 2001.)


Back to Section 2:  Astrophysics

Index:  Essays on Consciousness, Physics, and the Holographic Paradigm

Last Edit:  October 1, 2006.

Comments and suggestions welcome.

This paper is a work in progress.
Please check for the latest update before quoting in other venues the concepts and hypotheses presented here.
Thank you.


Copyright © 2003-2006 by Alan T. Williams. All rights reserved.