Consciousness, Physics, and the Holographic Paradigm
Essays by Alan T. Williams
Part I: Sneaking Up On Einstein
Astrophysics in the first decade of the 21st century
Section 2: Astrophysics:
Quoting Professor William C. (Bill) Keel of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama:
One of the most sensational predictions from Einstein's general theory of relativity was the gravitational deflection of starlight. This has no counterpart in classical physics. Since the masses of both interacting objects enter into Newton's expresson for gravitational attraction, a massless entity (such as light) cannot respond to the force of gravity. In contrast, Einstein showed that gravity can be viewed, not as a force between objects, but as a change in the geometry of the playing field – spacetime itself – in which objects exist. Motion, in this view, always takes place in the straightest available path, which may be curved if the straightest path is not exactly what we would think of as "straight." Light, too, might have to transit in such a path. 5
It will become clear that there is much more to be said about the gravitational lensing of starlight and space-time itself as humankind learns more about the cosmos.
The scientific revolution continues:
Given sufficient time physical science is progressive, and specialized fields of science inevitably advance beyond simple linear progress to exponential progress. The unexpected discovery of the universal principle of energy (TUPE) – the first principle of nonmaterial primordial energy – presents the fundamental scientific field of physics with the largest single advancement in scope since the discovery of thermodynamics in the mid-19th century.
Another example, Astronomy, was historically limited to visual observations by the naked eye for many millenia prior to the invention of the optical telescope. Indeed, astrophysics expanded human knowledge of physical cosmology beyond all previous concepts by using advanced electronics and space-based technology in the 20th century.
Humankind has outgrown earlier geocentric and heliocentric cosmologies. Planet Earth is known to be one of the smaller spheres in a small solar system surrounded by the Milky Way galaxy. Humankind has also discovered that our solar system is only one among trillions of other solar systems and our Milky Way galaxy is only one among billions of other galaxies in the observable universe.
The contemporary Big Bang model is the consensus view of physical cosmology as humankind enters the 21st century. On the one hand, the Big Bang model is essentially the closed material system representing the origin and subsequent existence of our complex universe that is currently "best supported" by the contemporaneous theory and extensive physical knowledge acquired during the 20th century. On the other hand, new discoveries such as dark matter and dark energy have yet to be adequately explained by the Big Bang model.
Moreover, the recent analysis of galaxy group and cluster movement by NASA's Alexander (Sasha) Kashlinsky and his team has unexpectedly introduced a revolutionary new anomaly called dark flow. Why is this new anomaly revolutionary? Because the Kashlinsky results suggest that the anomalous movement not only falls outside the gravitational parameters permitted by the ΛCDM concordance model of Big Bang cosmology, the data also seems to suggest the existence of structures and phenomena beyond the severely limited scope of the Big Bang.
As one explanation of the so-called dark flow (bulk flow), the Kashlinsky team speculates that the galaxy clusters are being attracted or driven by unknown structures or phenomena that exist beyond the inflation horizon of the observable Big Bang universe.
The anomalous bulk flow of galaxy groups and clusters moving toward a single region on the sky, therefore, indicates the possibility that new physics and a new cosmology may be required to explain the Kashlinsky results.
Thus the question arises, what is the physically real reason the galaxy groups and clusters under consideration seem to be moving toward a single region on the sky between the constellations of Centaurus and Vela?
Perhaps there is a simple explanation. Perhaps the dark flow (bulk flow) movement of galaxy groups and clusters measured by the Kashlinsky team is a movement as natural in an all-encompassing, presently unrecognized, nonmaterial/material non-Big Bang universe as the movement of the Earth orbiting the sun is in our own solar system.
A possible link to the NED:
The papers Unparticle Physics and Another Odd Thing About Unparticle Physics by Howard Georgi, Director of Undergraduate Studies in Physics at Harvard University, describing a nontrivial scale invariant sector in the very high energy theory that very weakly interacts with the rest of the standard model are, perhaps, a first glimpse of the nonmaterial/material transition zone between the material domain and the fundamental, irreducible, nonmaterial primordial energy domain (NED) implied by the recent discovery of the universal principle of energy (TUPE).
Georgi's Unparticle PDF Slides for Irvine Unparticle Colloquium - 1/24/08 and the citations at the end of each paper also contribute to the concept.
Continued in Section 3: The Diamagnetic Moon
Reference Notes (Click on the Note number to return to the text):
5 Keel, William C. The Sky at Einstein's Feet, p. 97. Praxis Publishing Ltd., Berlin, Germany, 2006. ISBN 10: 0-387-26130-3
Back to Section 1: Cosmology
Last Edit: June 25, 2009.
Comments and suggestions welcome.
This paper is a work in progress. Please check for the latest update before quoting in other venues the concepts and hypotheses presented here.
Copyright © 2004-2009 by Alan T. Williams. All rights reserved.