## Consciousness, Physics, and the Holographic ParadigmEssays and Shadowless Poetry by Alan T. Williams ## Part I: Sneaking Up On EinsteinAs far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain,
## Chapter 4## Section 2: Faraday, Thomson, and MaxwellClerk Maxwell (pronounced "Clark") graduated in 1854 from Trinity College, Cambridge, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics. His close relationships with previous Cambridge graduates included William Thomson (1824-1907) (later Lord Kelvin), Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow, and George G. Stokes (1819-1903), Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge. Thomson and Stokes were among the top, if not If [one] wished to read Ampère Faraday &c how should they be arranged, and at what stage & in what order might he read your articles in the Cambridge Journal? William Thomson's education and career had been enhanced and facilitated by his father, James Thomson, who was appointed to the Chair of Mathematics at the University of Glasgow in 1832. Thomson graduated from Cambridge in 1845 at age 21, then traveled to Paris and studied French scientific and mathematical methods. In Paris, Joseph Liouville (1809-1882) encouraged Thomson's professional interest in Michael Faraday, whom Thomson knew and interacted with in London, by suggesting that the reconciliation of Faraday's electrostatic experimental results and the views of the French mathematicians, Ampère, Coulomb, Poisson, etc., could be a fertile field of mathematical endeavor. Intrigued by Liouville's suggestion Thomson wrote several papers over the next few years based on Faraday's experimental results, including: *On a Mechanical Representation of Electric, Magnetic and Galvanic Forces*(1847).*On the Mathematical Theory of Electricity*(1848).*On the Mathematical Theory of Magnetism*(1851).
After receiving Maxwell's request for guidance, Thomson shared with him the challenge presented by interpreting Faraday's written experimental results using mathematical formalism. Faraday's work on electricity and magnetism intrigued Maxwell and he began his research by reading Thomson's papers on the subject. Maxwell's first published paper based on Faraday's work attempted "to shew how, by a strict application of the ideas and methods of Faraday, the connexion of the very different orders of phenomena which he has discovered may be clearly placed before the mathematical mind."9 The resulting paper, Six years later Maxwell published a second paper, I propose now to examine magnetic phenomena from a mechanical point of view, and to determine what tensions in, or motions of, a medium are capable of producing the mechanical phenomena observed. If, by the same hypothesis, we can connect the phenomena of magnetic attraction with electromagnetic phenomena and with those of induced currents, we shall have found a theory which, if not true, can only be proved to be erroneous by experiments which will greatly enlarge our knowledge of this part of physics.12 Maxwell's definitive paper on electricity and magnetism, The theory I propose may therefore be called a theory of the In the 1864 paper Maxwell also acknowledges Faraday's priority with regard to the transverse propagation of electric and magnetic fields:
Far removed from the actual, historical events as we enter the 21st century CE, it is of some interest to note that Faraday's paper,
8 Larmor, Sir Joseph, editor. 9 Maxwell, James Clerk. 10 Ref. 9, vol. 1, pp. 155-229. 11 Ref. 9, vol. 1, pp. 451-513. 12 Ref. 9, vol. 1, p. 452. 13 Ref. 9, vol. 1, pp. 526-597. 14 Ref. 9, vol. 1, p. 527. 15 Ref. 9, vol. 1, pp. 535-536.
Last Edit: August 13, 2010. Comments and suggestions welcome. This paper is a work in progress. Copyright © 2004-2010 by Alan T. Williams. All rights reserved. |