Consciousness, Physics, and the Holographic Paradigm
Essays by A.T. Williams
Part I: Sneaking Up On Einstein
The search for the fundamental constituents of matter continues,
Section 4: Quantum and Quanta
British scientist J.J. Thomson's 19th century cathode ray experiments provided an essential precursor for 20th century physical science. During a lecture on April 30, 1897, Thomson (1856-1940), recipient of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics, announced his discovery of the electron, the first subatomic quantum of particulate matter (i.e., the first discrete, organized, subatomic aggregation of nonmaterial, subquantum physical energy) to be experimentally isolated. Just three years later, in 1900, Max Planck (1858-1947), recipient of the 1918 Nobel Prize in Physics, intuitively discovered and defined the "quantum of action" for the radiation of blackbody energy now known as Planck's constant, symbolized by the letter h.
Five years after Planck's discovery of the quantum of energy, Albert Einstein (1879-1955), recipient of the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, set the stage for 20th century elementary particle physics and what is now called the old quantum theory with his formal description of the difference he perceived between Maxwell's dynamical electromagnetic field theory and his own atomistic concept of electromagnetic radiation 6,7 in his March 1905 paper, On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light.8 He wrote:
One problem, acknowledged early on by Einstein himself, is that by extending Maxwell's electrodynamics through the use of the classical kinetic theory of gases and "Boltzmann's principle," a phrase Einstein coined, he not only introduced his discontinuous, atomistic, quantum concept into electromagnetic radiation, but also introduced wave-particle duality into particle physics per se. At the present time, one hundred years after the fact, the problem of wave-particle duality remains unresolved by classical or quantum physics.
Another, arguably larger problem is that a profound fundamental difference necessarily exists between particulate matter and the omnipresent, irreducible, nonmaterial physical energy that fills the physically real spaces between material objects. Indeed, history amply affirms that Einstein's 1905 papers served to reinforce the focus of the early 20th century scientific communities in Europe and the United States on particle physics and the discrete, organized aggregations of nonmaterial energy, now called photons, that seem to constitute electromagnetic radiation while at the same time the papers deflected attention away from the investigation of fundamental, irreducible, nonmaterial physical energy itself.
What is the source of the profound fundamental difference between particulate matter and nonmaterial physical energy? The distinction between conditionally relative material particles and fundamental, irreducible nonmaterial physical energy is clear.
If particulate matter, as the product of energetic creative processes, is composed of discrete, organized aggregations of nonmaterial physical energy, then matter cannot exist in the absence of energy. Furthermore, if omnipresent, subquantum, nonmaterial physical energy per se has an objective, independent physical existence, then omnipresent, subquantum, nonmaterial physical energy per se exists in the absence of matter.
Therefore, if particulate matter and the material domain provide the detailed foreground of the perpetual puzzle of Nature, perhaps it is time to implement a thorough investigation of the energetic background that lies behind the dynamic foreground of the puzzle (i.e., the investigation of all-encompassing, subquantum, nonmaterial physical energy per se).
Focusing on the search for subquantum, nonmaterial physical energy itself in addition to seeking novel instances of discrete, particulate matter at smaller and smaller physical distances, smaller and smaller time intervals, and higher and higher energies, one can almost hear Gustav Kirchhoff (1824-1887) saying, "It should be obvious to the most casual observer that the use of E = mc² is inappropriate in any physical system other than a closed (conservative) material system."
In 1889, two years after Kirchhoff's death, his venerable pupil, Max Planck, was chosen to succeed him at the University of Berlin. Einstein, of course, was only eight years old when Kirchhoff died and had yet to develop his theory of special relativity or derive his famous equation.
Oddly enough, during the early years of Einstein's rise to eminence he pugnaciously treated Planck as a professional rival rather than a worthy senior colleague despite the fact that Planck immediately saw the value of special relativity and enthusiastically supported the theory in the international physics community. Nonetheless, the fictitious comment attributed to Kirchhoff above would have been appropriate. The scientific investigation of nonmaterial subquantum energy and energetics in compound closed (conservative) nonmaterial/open (nonconservative) material systems will necessarily seek answers which lie beyond the scope of previous scientific endeavors.
In principle all subquantum energy exchanges within and between material objects take place in the nonmaterial energy domain well beyond the theoretical barrier represented by the speed of quantized electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in closed (conservative) material systems. This implies that omnipresent, pervasive, subquantum hyperenergy and hyperinformation in the nonmaterial energy domain not only can be, but are in fact transmitted at rates much faster than the speed of light both within and beyond the bound of our finite, local material universe: Transmission rates that in many cases may be considered instantaneous from a limited, material point of view.
Faster-than-light (FTL) transmission of nonmaterial, subquantum hyperenergy and hyperinformation can also be seen as significant agreement with the gravitation time dilation described in Einstein's general relativity theory (GR). Compared to the ultrahigh frequency (extremely short wavelength), nonaccelerated, gravity-free, superluminal hyperenergy/hyperinformation propagation in the omnipresent, pervasive, nonmaterial energy domain, some part of the slower frequency (longer wavelength) energy and information propagation subsequent to entry into the holonomic material domain (i.e., subsequent to entry into the distinctly different propagation medium of our open, nonconservative material universe) may be attributed to the gravitation time dilation effect.11
Classical (Newtonian) physics, Einstein's special and general relativity theories, and quantum mechanics are subsumed by The Energetic Holographic Paradigm (TEHP) model of physical reality just-as-it-is. Each of these scientific methods is now and will remain valid within their respective limits. At the same time, science and mathematics will undergo an exciting new era of intensive and extensive investigation and experimentation.
Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BOOMERanG (Balloon Observations Of Millimetric Extragalactic Radiation and Geomagnetics) microwave telescope experiment suggest that our finite, subluminal material universe has low matter density, is inflationary (with an accelerating rate of expansion), and flat (with large-scale Euclidean geometry).
The BOOMERanG CMB data can be seen as support for The Energetic Holographic Paradigm (TEHP) model which views our finite material universe as a compound energetic/dynamic hologram immersed in an objective, transcendent (subquantum), nonmaterial physical energy domain that interacts through a variety of nonmaterial/material interfaces such as the electromagnetic zero point field (ZPF) and the human mind/brain holonomic complex. If the existence of the transcendent hyperenergy and hyperinformation domain is experimentally confirmed, then it may be the primary source of the massive amount of recently discovered cosmic dark energy that pervades the material universe.12 Furthermore, if the zitterbewegung – the trembling motion of the zero point field – is a nonmaterial/material interface, it may provide experimental evidence which confirms subquantum energy and information transfers.
Energy interactions and material mass:
Conservation of energy:
The conservation of energy per se essentially means:
By definition the material realm or domain begins and ends at the finite boundary of our open (nonconservative) material universe. Also by definition, all physical energy that may enter or leave our open (nonconservative) material universe by means of the fundamental, irreducible (subquantum, prequantum) physical energy domain is necessarily nonmaterial and massless in nature. Moreover, neither material mass nor nonmaterial energy is conserved in an open (nonconservative) material system which is embedded within an open (nonconservative) nonmaterial or material system.
Continued in Chapter 2: From Mass to Energy
Reference Notes (Click on the Note number to return to the text):
6 Einstein refers to Max Planck by name in the March 1905 paper which introduced the light quantum hypothesis (Lichtquantenhypothese), but specifically avoids using Planck's constant, h, by substituting the equivalent equation Rß/N, where R is the gas constant, ß is the thermodynamic beta, and N is Avogadro's number. (cf. Footnote 8 below and "Einstein's Early Work on the Quantum Hypothesis," The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, vol. 2, pp. 134-148, Princeton University Press, 1989. John Stachel, editor. ISBN 0-691-08526-9)
7 Schilpp, Paul Arthur, editor. Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, Open Court, La Salle, Illinois, [1949; 1951] 1969, 1970, pp. 35-51. ISBN 0-87548-286-4
8 Einstein, Albert. "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt," Annalen der Physik, 17 (1905): 132-148. Anna Beck, translator; The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein: English Edition, vol. 2, Doc. 14, pp. 86-103, Princeton University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-691-08549-8
9 Ref. 8, p. 86.
10 Ref. 8, p. 87.
11 The casual reader can find an excellent nontechnical explanation of Special and General Relativity in Brian Greene's book, The Elegant Universe, W. W. Norton & Company, New York - London, 1999. ISBN 0-393-04688-5
12 In some models of the universe an ultra-low energy phenomenon called quintessence and Einstein's cosmological constant are essentially equivalent. Paul Steinhardt's explanation, Quintessential Cosmology and Cosmic Acceleration, can be read with an Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Back to Chapter 1, Section 3: Fundamental Forces
Last Edit: July 10, 2005.
Comments and suggestions welcome.
This paper is a work in progress.
Copyright © 2002-2008 by Alan T. Williams. All rights reserved.